Isigama magama kunye neenkcazo

Uvavanyo lokwamkela

Uvavanyo olusesikweni lwenziwe ukumisela ukuba ngaba le nkqubo iyazanelisa na iikhrayitheriya zayo zokwamkelwa kunye nokwenza ukuba umthengi abone ukuba uyayamkela okanye akayamkeli inkqubo.

Indlela ye-Agile yoPhuculo lweNkqubo


Ukuphuculwa kwesoftware e-Agile kugxininisa kakhulu kwintsebenziswano, ukuphendula kutshintsho, kunye nokuncitshiswa kwenkunkuma kuwo wonke umjikelo wophuhliso. Ukuphuculwa kwesoftware ye-Agile kugxile ekugcineni ikhowudi ngokulula, ukuvavanya rhoqo, kunye nokuhambisa izixhobo ezisebenzayo zesicelo ngokukhawuleza ukuba zilungile.

Umgaqo obalulekileyo we-agile kukuhambisa (ngokunokwenzeka) isoftware enokufumaneka emva kwayo yonke iteration.


Ukuzilungisa ngasemva



Ukuzilungisa ngasemva yinkqubo yokongeza amabali omsebenzisi omtsha kwimisebenzi engemva, ukuphinda ubeke phambili amabali akhoyo njengoko kufuneka, ukudala uqikelelo, kunye nokwakha ngokutsha amabali amakhulu kumabali amancinci okanye kwimisebenzi. Endaweni yokuzilungisa emva emva kwexesha lonke, iqela linokubamba iseshoni yokuzilungisa emva kwenkqubo nganye.

Ukwaphula ulwakhiwo

Xa umbhekisi phambili esongeza utshintsho kwikhowudi yemithombo ekhokelela ekusileleni kwenkqubo yokwakha elandelayo, umphuhlisi 'wophule ulwakhiwo.'


Kuya kufuneka ukuzibophelela kweqela ukunqanda ukophula ulwakhiwo njengoko kuya kulucothisa uphuhliso kwaye kunokuba sisithintelo kwabanye abaphuhlisi. Xa ulwakhiwo lophukile, iqela lophuhliso kufuneka lithathe amanyathelo kwangoko ukulungisa ulwakhiwo.

Ulwakhiwo lophukile ukuba inkqubo yokwakha ayinakugqitywa ngempumelelo ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi kubandakanya (kodwa kungaphelelanga apho) ukusilela ukuqokelela, ukudibanisa kunye nezilumkiso ezingamkelekanga, okanye ukusilela kwalo naliphi na inani lovavanyo oluzenzekelayo.

Inkqubo yoKwakha / iPayipi yokwakha

Inkqubo yokwakha okanye yokwakha umbhobho, yinkqubo apho ibali liqala ukusuka ekuqaleni ukuya kwimveliso, ihlala ihamba ngamanqanaba ahlukeneyo kunye nokujonga ukuqinisekisa umgangatho.


Umbhobho wokwakha uchaza ukuhamba komsebenzi wokuhanjiswa kwesoftware kwaye kwenzeka ntoni kwinqanaba ngalinye.

Itshathi yeBurndown

Igrafu ebonisa iiyure zomsebenzi zizonke ezishiyekileyo ngosuku. Ibonisa apho iqela limi malunga nokugqibezela imisebenzi ezinikele kwi-sprint. I-X-axis ibonisa iintsuku kwi-sprint, ngelixa i-Y-axis ngumzamo oshiyekileyo.

Inkukhu


Kwisikram, inkuku ligama lesitsotsi elisetyenziselwa umntu onomdla kwiprojekthi kodwa engenalo uxanduva lokusebenza emsebenzini kulwaziso olusebenzayo. Banokujonga iintlanganiso zeqela kodwa abanakho ukuvota okanye ukuthetha.

Umdibaniso oqhubekayo

Ukuqhubeka kokudityaniswa (i-CI) yinkqubo ye-eXtreme Programming (XP) apho amalungu eqela lokuhambisa ahlala edibanisa umsebenzi wabo (umz. Ngeyure, okanye ubuncinci kube kanye yonke imihla).

Umdibaniso ngamnye ungqinisiswa ngokwakhiwa okuzenzekelayo, okwenza uvavanyo, ukufumana naziphi na iimpazamo zokudityaniswa ngokukhawuleza nangokuzenzekelayo. Eyona njongo iphambili ye-CI kukuphepha oko kubizwa ngokuba kukudityaniswa okanye ukudibanisa isihogo.


Iqela elinqamlezayo

Iqela elinamalungu anabo bonke ubuchule bokusebenza kunye nezinto ezizodwa (ezihlala zibizwa ngokuba zizakhono ezininzi) eziyimfuneko ukugqiba iprojekthi ukusuka ekuqaleni ukuya ekugqibeleni.

Umthengi

Umthengi uqhele ukuchazwa njengomamkeli okanye umsebenzisi wemveliso. Abathengi banokuba ngaphakathi okanye ngaphandle kumbutho. Umthengi unokuba ngumntu omnye, isebe, okanye iqela elikhulu.

Abathengi bangaphakathi ngamanye amaxesha babizwa ngokuba yi 'Shishini.'

Ukuma mihla le

Intlanganiso yeqela lemihla ngemihla ihlala ibambe into yokuqala kusasa ukubonelela ngohlaziyo lwenqanaba kumalungu eqela. Iintlanganiso zihlala zibekwa ebhoksini ukuya kwimizuzu emi-5 ukuya kweli-15, kwaye zibanjwa zimile ukukhumbuza abantu ukuba bayigcine indibano imfutshane kwaye ingene kwinqanaba.

Inkcazo eyenziwe (DoD)

Iikhrayitheriya zokwamkela umsebenzi zigqityiwe. Ukucacisa ezi khrayitheriya luxanduva lweqela liphela, kubandakanya neshishini. Ngokubanzi, kukho amanqanaba amathathu “Enziweyo” (ekwabizwa ngokuba Kwenziwe-Kwenziwe):

  • Yenziwe: Iphuhlisiwe, ibaleka kwibhokisi yonjiniyela
  • Yenziwe: Iqinisekisiwe ngokuqhuba iimvavanyo zeyunithi, ukuphononongwa kwekhowudi, njl.
  • Kwenziwe: Kuqinisekisiwe njengokomgangatho ofumanekayo ngovavanyo olusebenzayo, uphononongo, njl.

Indlela eyiyo yokuchazwa “Kwenziwe” iyahluka ukuhlangabezana neemfuno ezithile zemibutho kunye namanyathelo okuqala.

Uluhlu

Ibali lomsebenzisi elikhulu kakhulu ekugqibeleni eliye lahlulwa laba ngamabali amancinci. Iimbongo zihlala zisetyenziswa njengendawo yokugcina izimvo ezintsha kunye namabali ahambelana noko ukuze aphuhliswe kwiiprinta ezilandelayo.

Amabali e-Epic anceda amaqela ophuhliso lwe-Agile ukuba alawule ngokufanelekileyo kwaye alungise imveliso yabo engemva.

Uqikelelo

Inkqubo yokuvumelana ngomlinganiso wobungakanani bamabali okanye imisebenzi kwimveliso eseleyo. Kwiiprojekthi ezi-agile, uqikelelo lwenziwa liqela elinoxanduva lokuhambisa umsebenzi, zihlala zisebenzisa umdlalo wokucwangcisa okanye ukucwangcisa i-poker.

Inkqubo egqibeleleyo

Indlela yokuphucula isoftware ejolise ekuphuculeni umgangatho wesoftware kunye nokuphendula ekuguqukeni kweemfuno zabathengi.

I-XP ixhasa 'ukukhutshwa' rhoqo kwimijikelezo emifutshane yophuhliso, ejolise ekuphuculeni imveliso kunye nokwazisa iindawo zokutshekisha apho iimfuno zabathengi ezintsha zinokwamkelwa khona.

Ezinye izinto zenkqubo ezigabadeleyo zibandakanya: iinkqubo ezimbini, uphononongo olubanzi lwekhowudi, uvavanyo lweyunithi, ukudityaniswa okuqhubekayo ukubala ezimbalwa.

Uphawu

Umsebenzi ohambelanayo weshishini okanye uphawu kwimveliso yesoftware okanye inkqubo. Iimpawu zihlala ziquka uninzi lweenkcukacha (zeyunithi) iimfuno. Inqaku elinye liphunyezwa ngokwamabali amaninzi.

Iimpawu zinokusebenza okanye zingasebenzi; zibonelela ngesiseko sokuququzelela amabali.

Ukulandelelana kweFibonacci

Ulandelelwano lwamanani apho kuthatyathwa inani elilandelayo ngokudibanisa la mabini angaphambili (umz. 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34…). Ulandelelwano lusetyenziselwa ubungakanani bamabali kwiindlela zokuqikelela ze-Agile ezinje ngokucwangcisa i-poker.

Isithintelo

Nantoni na ethintela ilungu leqela ekwenzeni umsebenzi ngokufanelekileyo ngokufanelekileyo ngumqobo. Ilungu ngalinye leqela linethuba lokwazisa izithintelo ngexesha lentlanganiso yokuma yemihla ngemihla.

Umsebenzi weScrumMaster kukuqinisekisa ukuba izithintelo zisuswa ngokukhawuleza ukuze iqela liqhubeke nokuvelisa.

Ukuphendula

Ithuba (ukusuka kwiveki e-1 ukuya kwiinyanga ezi-2 ubude) apho iqela lophuhliso lwe-Agile livelisa ukwanda kwesoftware egqityiweyo. Yonke inkqubo izigaba zobomi bomjikelo wobomi (iimfuno, uyilo, ikhowudi, kunye novavanyo) kufuneka zigqitywe ngexesha lokulungiswa kwaye ziboniswe ukuba ulwamkelo lwamkelwe njengokugqitywa ngempumelelo.

Ekuqaleni kwempendulo, ishishini okanye umnini mveliso uchonga okulandelayo (eyona nto iphambili) yomsebenzi weqela ekufuneka uligqibile. Iqela lophuhliso ke liqikelela inqanaba lomzamo kwaye liyazibophelela ekugqibezeleni icandelo lomsebenzi ngexesha lokulungiswa.

IKhanban

I-Kanban sisixhobo esivela kwimveliso ecekeceke kwaye inxulunyaniswa nesebe lezenzo ezi-agile ezibhekiswa ngokukhululekileyo njenge-Lean Software Development. I-Kanban inyanzela ukuba mkhulu kangakanani umsebenzi oqhubekayo ovunyelwe ukuba ubekho ngaxeshanye.

Umahluko ophambili phakathi kweKanban kunye neScrum kukuba iScrum sithintela umsebenzi oqhubekayo ngokusebenzisa i-sprints kunye neKhanban yokunciphisa umsebenzi oqhubekayo ngokunqamla ukuba mngakanani umsebenzi onokuvela ngexesha elinye (umz.imisebenzi ye-N okanye amabali eN).

Uphuhliso lweSoftware

Ukuphuhliswa kwesoftware e-Lean okanye i-Lean ijolise ekunciphiseni inkunkuma kunye nokwenza imveliso yexabiso lesoftware.

Ubuncinci beMveliso esebenzayo (MVP)

Eyona mveliso incinci yokusebenza inokwakhiwa kwaye kuvavanywe kwaye ihanjiswe ngexesha elinika ixabiso kubasebenzisi.

Inkqubo yePair

Inkqubo ye-agile yophuhliso lwesoftware apho iinkqubo ezimbini zisebenza kunye kwindawo enye yokusebenza. Olunye udidi lwekhowudi ngelixa olunye luvavanya umgca ngamnye wekhowudi njengoko ichwethezwe kuyo. Umntu ochwetheza kuthiwa ngumqhubi. kwaye umntu ophonononga ikhowudi ubizwa ngokuba ngumkhangeli okanye umqhubi wenqanawa. Iinkqubo ezimbini zitshintsha iindima rhoqo.

Ihagu

Umntu onoxanduva lokwenza umsebenzi kwi-iteration esebenzayo. Yahlukile kwinkukhu. Iihagu ziyabandakanyeka kule projekthi.

Ukucwangcisa iPoker

Ukucwangcisa i-Poker yindlela esekwe kwimvumelwano yokuqikelela, esetyenziselwa ukuqikelela umzamo okanye ubungakanani bemisebenzi kuphuhliso lwesoftware. Iqela lisebenzisa uthotho lwe-fibonacci okanye i-T-shirt sizing ukuqikelela amabali ngexesha lomdlalo wokudlala we-poker.

Imveliso

Ukuthetha ngokubanzi, imveliso ibhekisa kwingqokelela yeempawu ezidityanisiweyo kwaye ezipakishwe kwisoftware enika ixabiso kumthengi okanye kwintengiso.

Umnini weMveliso

Umnini weMveliso yenye yeendima eziphambili kwiSkram. Uxanduva loMnini weMveliso lubandakanya:

  • Ukuseka, ukukhulisa nokunxibelelana nombono wemveliso
  • Ukudala kunye nokukhokela iqela labaphuhlisi ukuba libonelele ngexabiso kumthengi
  • Ukubeka iliso kwiprojekthi ngokuchasene neenjongo zayo ze-ROI kunye nombono wotyalo-mali
  • Ukwenza izigqibo malunga nokudala nini ukukhutshwa ngokusemthethweni

Ukushiyeka kwemveliso

Ukushiyeka kwemveliso kufana noluhlu lweempawu ezinqwenelwa lishishini ukuhambisa ixesha elide. Yingqokelela yamabali kunye nemisebenzi iqela eliza kusebenza kuyo ngaxa lithile kwixesha elizayo.

Umnini weMveliso ugcina olu luhlu lweemveliso ezisemva ngokuhambelana nezinto eziphambili kwishishini kunye neemfuno. Izinto ezisemva kufuneka zibonise imephu yendlela yeshishini.

Ukuphinda usebenze kwakhona

Ukutshintsha ikhowudi yesoftware ekhoyo ukuze kuphuculwe uyilo ngokubanzi. Ukuphinda usebenze ngesiqhelo akutshintshi isimilo esibonakalayo sesoftware; iphucula ubume bayo bangaphakathi.

Isicwangciso sokuKhutshwa

Isicwangciso sokukhululwa sishedyuli yokukhupha isoftware kwimveliso. Izicwangciso zokukhutshwa kwesiqhelo zibandakanya ezona zinto ziphambili ekufuneka zithunyelwe, kunye nemihla yokukhutshwa ehambelana nayo.

Ukubuyela umva

Intlanganiso ebanjwe ngexesha ebibanjwe ekupheleni kwesipringi apho iqela livavanya iinkqubo zalo ukumisela okuphumeleleyo kunye nokuphuculwa. Ukubuyela umva kubalulekile ekuphuculeni okuqhubekayo.

Iziphumo ezilungileyo zokubuyela umva kukuchonga into enye okanye ezimbini eziphambili zeqela elifuna ukusebenza kulo kulungelelwaniso okanye ukukhutshwa okulandelayo.

Iskram

Isikram sisakhelo sokuphuhlisa iimveliso zesoftware ngendlela ephindaphindayo kunye neyonyukayo kwaye sesona sikhokelo saziwa kakhulu seAgile.

Isikram senziwe ngothotho lwezihlandlo ezimfutshane ezibizwa ngokuba yi-sprints-nganye nganye iphela ngokuhanjiswa kwesongezo sesoftware esebenzayo.

Iqela leskram

Iqela lesikram liqela elinomnqamlezo kunye nelokuzilungiselela elijongene nokuhambisa isoftware.

Iqela lesikram libandakanya abantu abanezakhono ezininzi abaziqondayo iimfuno zabathengi kunye nokuqhuba uyilo lwesoftware, ukufaka iikhowudi kunye nokuvavanya. Izakhono ezongezelelweyo (umz.Uyilo lwe-UI, ukusebenziseka, njl.njl.) Nazo zinokufakwa.

Iqela lesikram lijongene nayo yonke imisebenzi yokuzibophelela kunye neziphumo.

IskramMaster

IScrumMaster inoxanduva lokugcina inkqubo yeSkram kunye nempilo yeqela xa lilonke. IScrumMaster iqinisekisa ukuba iqela lisebenza ngokupheleleyo kwaye linemveliso ngokususa nayiphi na imiqobo enokuthi ithintele inkqubela phambili yeqela. IskramMaster sikwalungiselela umsitho weScrum.

Umkhonto

Ibali okanye umsebenzi ojolise ekuphenduleni umbuzo okanye ekuqokeleleni ulwazi, endaweni yokuphumeza amanqaku emveliso, amabali abasebenzisi, okanye iimfuno.

Ngamanye amaxesha ibali lomsebenzisi lenziwa elingenakuqikelelwa kude kube liqela lophuhliso lenze umsebenzi othile ukusombulula umbuzo wobuchwephesha okanye ingxaki yoyilo. Isisombululo kukwenza i 'spike,' Eli libali elinenjongo yokunika impendulo okanye isisombululo.

I-Sprint

Kuphuhliso lweemveliso, isprinta lixesha elibekiweyo ekufanele kugqitywe ngalo umsebenzi othile kwaye ulungiselelwe ukujongwa kwakhona. Ubude be-sprint obuqhelekileyo zihlala iiveki ezi-2 kwaye ngesiqhelo azikho ngaphezulu kweeveki ezi-4.

Ukushiyeka ngasemva kwe-Sprint

Uluhlu lweempawu, amabali omsebenzisi okanye imisebenzi etsalwe kwimveliso eseleyo yokuqwalaselwa ukuze igqitywe ngexesha lokubaleka elizayo. Iimpawu zokubuyela umva kwemveliso kunye namabali abasebenzisi ahlukaniswe kwimisebenzi yokwenza i-sprint backlog ngexesha lentlanganiso yesicwangciso se-sprint.

Ukuzilolonga kwamabali

Kwiiseshoni zokuzilungisa amabali, iinkcukacha zamabali abasebenzisi ziye zaphuma. Iikhrayitheriya zokwamkelwa zibhaliwe zacaciswa. Amabali nawo aqikelelwa kweli nqanaba.

Injongo yale seshoni kukuqinisekisa ukuba wonke umntu obandakanyekayo ekuphuhliseni nasekuvavanyeni amabali abelana ngokuqonda okufanayo ngomxholo wamabali ngaphambi kokuqala kokuphuhliswa kwamabali.

Iiseshoni zokucoca amabali zihlala zibanjwa phakathi kwe-sprint kule Sprint ilandelayo ukuze iqela lazi umthwalo womsebenzi we-sprint elandelayo.

Abathathi-nxaxheba liqela lesikram, inkosi yesikram kunye nomnini mveliso.

Ukucwangciswa kweSprint

Iiseshini zokucwangcisa i-Sprint zibanjwa ngaphambi kokuqala kwesprint entsha. Kule seshoni iqela lichonga imisebenzi ekufuneka yenziwe kwaye lithathe isigqibo sokuba mangaphi amanqaku ebali anokuzibophelela kuwo kwi-sprint ezayo.

Phambi kweeseshoni zokucwangcisela ukukhawulezisa, amabali ebefanele ukuba acacisiwe kwaye aqikelelwe ngexesha leseshini yokuCoca amaBali, ukuze kungabikho xesha lichithwayo ngexesha lokucwangciswa komjikelo.

Abathathi-nxaxheba yinkosi yesikram kunye neqela lesikram.

Ibali lomsebenzisi

Ibali lomsebenzisi (ibali lika-aka) linokucingelwa njengemfuneko, inqaku elinexabiso elithile kwishishini.

Amabali achaza umsebenzi ekufuneka ugqityiwe ukuhambisa inqaku lemveliso. Amabali lelona candelo lisisiseko lonxibelelwano, ucwangciso, kunye nothethathethwano phakathi kweQela leSkram, abaNini beShishini kunye noMnini weMveliso.

Amabali aqukethe ezi zinto zilandelayo:

  • Inkcazo, ihlala ngokwemiqathango yeshishini
  • Ubungakanani, ngeenjongo zokuqikelela, ngokubanzi kuboniswe kumanqaku ebali (anje ngo-1, 2, 3, 5)
  • Inye okanye ezingakumbi iikhrayitheriya zokwamkelwa, zinika inkcazo emfutshane yendlela eliya kuqinisekiswa ngayo ibali

Umsebenzi

Imisebenzi yinkcazo yomsebenzi wokwenene owenziwa ngumntu okanye isibini ukugqibezela ibali. Zilawulwa, ziyenzeka, kwaye ziyalandeleka iiyunithi zomsebenzi. Ngokwesiqhelo, kukho imisebenzi eliqela kwibali ngalinye.

Ityala lobuchwephesha

Ixesha eliqulunqwe ngu KwiWadi Cunningham Ukuchaza uxanduva olwenziwa ngumbutho wesoftware xa ikhetha uyilo okanye indlela yokwakha efanelekileyo kwixesha elifutshane kodwa ekonyusa ukuntsokotha kwaye ibiza kakhulu kwixesha elide.

Ukulinganisa i-T-Shirt

Indlela yokuqikelela umsebenzi ofunekayo ukugqibezela ibali kubungakanani beT-shirt, okt Encinci (S), Ephakathi (M), eNkulu (L) okanye e-X-Enkulu (XL)

Ixesha lexesha

Ibhokisi yexesha lixesha lexesha elimiselweyo elabelwe ukufezekisa iinjongo ezithile. Kuphuhliso lwe-agile, iterations kunye ne-sprints yimizekelo yeebhokisi zexesha ezithintela umsebenzi kwinkqubo kunye nenqanaba lenkqubela phambili yokunyuka.

Velocity

I-Velocity inyathela ukuba lingakanani na iqela elinokuwugqiba kwi-iteration. I-Velocity ihlala ilinganiswa kumabali okanye kumanqaku ebali. IVelocity inokulinganisa imisebenzi ngeyure okanye iyunithi efanayo.

I-Velocity isetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ukuba liya kuthatha ixesha elingakanani iqela elithile ukuhambisa iziphumo zexesha elizayo ngokukhupha ngaphezulu kwisiseko sokusebenza kwayo kwangaphambili.

Umsebenzi uyaqhubeka

Nawuphi na umsebenzi ongagqitywanga kodwa osele ufumene iindleko ezinkulu kumbutho. Nasiphi na isoftware esele iphuhlisiwe kodwa ingasasazwa kwimveliso inokuqwalaselwa njengomsebenzi oqhubekayo.