Iiprotokholi yeNethiwekhi kunye neXesha

Esi sithuba sinika isishwankathelo seenkqubo zenethiwekhi kwaye sigubungela isigama esithile somgaqo-nkqubo wenethiwekhi enemizekelo.

Inkcazo ye 'protocol' iyahluka kancinci, kodwa ukubeka ngokulula, umthetho olandelwayo uyi iseti yemigaqo .

Kuthungelwano, iiprothokholi zibhekisa kwimigangatho esemthethweni kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo echaza indlela ezimbini okanye ezingaphezulu izixhobo zonxibelelwano kwinethiwekhi.




Isiseko soNxibelelwano lweNethiwekhi

Ukuze uthungelwano lubekhona, sifuna ubuncinci bezixhobo ezimbini ezixhumeneyo.

  • Unxibelelwano lwenethiwekhi lwenzeka kumanqanaba ahlukeneyo okanye iileya (imodeli ye-OSI kunye nemodeli ye-TCP / IP)
  • Uluhlu ngalunye lonxibelelwano lwenethiwekhi luxanduva lokudlulisa ulwazi luye kwinqanaba elilandelayo kwisitaki.
  • Idatha egqithisiweyo phakathi kwamanqanaba yaziwa ngokuba yiProtocol Data Unit (PDU).
  • Olu luhlu lonxibelelwano luvumela ukusombulula ingxaki ngcono.
  • Ukunyuka kwe-intanethi kunye netekhnoloji entsha kuyitshintshile indlela izixhobo zokunxibelelana kwaye ngenxa yoko kunokufuna iinkqubo ezintsha.


Amagama omgaqo womnatha womnatha

I-LAN: I-LAN imele 'iNethiwekhi yeNgingqi yendawo' kwaye ibhekisa kwinethiwekhi engafikelelekiyo nge-intanethi. Imizekelo yoku yinethiwekhi yasekhaya okanye yeofisi.


VAN: I-WAN imele 'iNethiwekhi yeNgingqi ebanzi' kwaye ngokubanzi ibhekisa kuthungelwano olukhulu olusasazekileyo kwaye, ngokubanzi, kwi-intanethi.



ISP: I-ISP imele 'uMboneleli weNkonzo ye-Intanethi' kwaye ibhekisa kwinkampani enoxanduva lokubonelela ngokufikelela kwi-intanethi.

BUSUKU: Uguqulo lwedilesi yenethiwekhi livumela izicelo ezivela ngaphandle kwenethiwekhi yendawo ukuba zibalulwe kwizixhobo ezikwinethiwekhi yakho yasekuhlaleni.

I-firewall: I-firewall sisiqwenga sehardware okanye isoftware esinyanzelisa ukuba loluphi uhlobo lwendlela yenethiwekhi kwaye engavumelekanga. Oku kwenziwa ngokubanzi ngokumisela imigaqo ekufuneka amazibuko afikeleleke ngayo ngaphandle.


Umzila: I-router sisixhobo sothungelwano esineyona njongo iphambili yokuhambisa idatha ngapha nangapha phakathi kweenethiwekhi ezahlukeneyo. Esi sixhobo sivumela izicelo ukuba zenziwe kwi-intanethi kwaye ulwazi luthunyelwe kwakhona kwizixhobo ezikwinethiwekhi yendawo.

Tshintsha: Umsebenzi osisiseko weswitshi kukubonelela ngokufikelela phakathi kwezixhobo kwinethiwekhi yendawo. Umzekelo kukutshintsha kwe-Ethernet.

Ujongano lomnatha: Eli candelo likuvumela ukuba uqhagamshele kwinethiwekhi yoluntu okanye yabucala. Inika isoftware efunekayo ukusebenzisa izixhobo zonxibelelwano. Umzekelo woku ngaMakhadi esiNxibelelanisi seNethiwekhi (iiNICs).

Izibuko: Izibuko yindawo yokudibanisa echazwe ngokufanelekileyo. Izibuko libonelela ngendawo yokuphela konxibelelwano kunye nokuhanjiswa kwedatha. Izibuko ziqala ukusuka ku-0 kuye ku-65535.


Iphakethe: Ipakethi yiyunithi esisiseko yedatha egqithiselwe kwinethiwekhi. Ipakethi ineheda enika ulwazi malunga nepakethi (umthombo, indawo ekuyiwa kuyo, njl.njl) kunye nomzimba okanye umthwalo ohlawulelwayo oqukethe eyona datha ithunyelweyo.

Isishwankathelo

Kule posi, sigubungele iziseko zeenkqubo zomnatha kunye namagama aqhelekileyo. Sixoxe ngokuba yintoni umthetho olandelwayo kunye nendlela izixhobo ezinxibelelana ngayo kwinethiwekhi, kwinqanaba eliphezulu.