Izisongelo zoKhuseleko kunye neeVectors zokuhlasela

Kule posi siza kufunda malunga nokuba kutheni ukuhlaselwa kwe-cyber kusenzeka, zeziphi iinjongo zabaphangi, ukuhlelwa kwezisongelo kunye neeveki ezahlukeneyo zokuhlasela.



Kutheni kuhlaselwa nge-cyber?

Ukuthetha nje ngokubanzi, ulwazi olubaluleke ngakumbi, kokuphakamisa izoyikiso kunye namathuba okuhlaselwa.

Masiqale ngeenkcazo:



  • Ukoyikiswa kukhuseleko kubhekisa kuyo nayiphi na into enokubangela umonakalo kwinkqubo. Nokuba ziyenzeka okanye azenzeki ayibalulekanga njengeyokuba zinamandla amakhulu okukhokelela kuhlaselo lwenkqubo okanye uthungelwano. Ke ngoko, izoyikiso zokhuselo azifanele zithathwe lula.


  • Uhlaselo lokhuseleko (uhlaselo lwe-cyber) -bhekisa kumzamo wokufumana ukufikelela okungagunyaziswanga kwinkqubo okanye kwinethiwekhi.




Iinjongo ezibangela ukuhlaselwa nge-Intanethi

Ukufikelela kulwazi oluxabisekileyo kuhlala kusisizathu sokuba umphangi enze uhlaselo.



Kuxhomekeka ekubeni ngabagculeli bafuna ukwenza ntoni, iinjongo zinokwahluka, kodwa ngokubanzi isiseko sazo zonke iinjongo kukufikelela kulwazi oluxabisekileyo.

Ke, sinokugqiba ukuba injongo ivela kwingcinga yokuba inkqubo inolwazi olugciniweyo olugciniweyo kwaye ngenxa yoko kukujolisa kuhlaselo.



Injongo yohlaselo kwinkqubo

Oku kuxhomekeke kwi-hacker njengesiqhelo. Wonke umgculeli uneenkolelo, iinjongo kunye nezakhono zakhe. Nangona kunjalo, ezinye zezizathu eziqhelekileyo zokuhlaselwa kwe-cyber zezi:


  • Ukuphazamisa ukuhamba kwemisebenzi yeshishini kunye neenkqubo
  • Ukuba ulwazi oluxabisekileyo
  • Ukuphathwa kwedatha
  • Ukuba imali nolwazi olubalulekileyo lwezemali
  • Ukuziphindezela
  • Intlawulelo

Nje ukuba umhlaseli abe neenjongo zakhe, banokuqhubeka nokufumana izixhobo ezifanelekileyo kunye nendlela yokuxhaphaza ukuba sesichengeni kwenkqubo ekujolise kuyo emva koko bahlasele. Oku kunokumelwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:



Ukuhlaselwa kweeVectors

Ngaba abagcini bakufumana njani ukufikelela kwiinkqubo kunye neenethiwekhi?

Iindlela ekuthi ngazo ngabagculi bahambise umthwalo kwiinkqubo kunye neenethiwekhi zibizwa ngokuba ziivenkile zokuhlasela.


Abahlaseli basebenzisa iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokuhlasela ukuze bafumane ukufikelela kwiinkqubo kunye neenethiwekhi.

Ukusongelwa ngamafu kwiKhompyutha

Ikhompyuter yelifu ibhekisa kunikezelo lwezixhobo ezifunwayo ngaphezulu kwe-intanethi apho abasebenzisi bahlawulela khona kwaye basebenzise kangakanani izixhobo.

Abasebenzisi basebenzisa amafu ukugcina ulwazi lwabo kubandakanya ulwazi olubuthathaka, ngokukodwa kwimeko yeenkampani.

Ngaphandle kwezibonelelo ezininzi eziza nekhompyuter yelifu kwitafile, kukho iingxaki ezithile ekusebenziseni ikhompyutha yefu, ngakumbi xa ukhuseleko lukhona.


Ezinye zezoyikiso zekhompyuter yelifu zibandakanya:

  • Ukuba ulwazi kwabanye abasebenzisi belifu ibhekisa kwizoyikiso zangaphakathi apho abasebenzi abaneenjongo ezimbi bekopa ulwazi kwisixhobo sokugcina
  • Ukulahleka kwedatha ibhekisa ekususeni idatha egcinwe kwilifu ngokusebenzisa iintsholongwane kunye ne-malware.
  • Ukuhlaselwa kolwazi olubuthathaka ibhekisa kubaphangi abangena emafini kwaye beba ulwazi malunga nabanye abasebenzisi. Olo lwazi luhlala lubandakanya amanani ekhadi letyala kunye nolunye ulwazi lwezezimali.

Izisongelo eziqhubela phambili

Olu hlobo lokuhlaselwa lubhekisa ekubeni ulwazi ngaphandle kokujolisa kuhlaselo.

Injongo yolu hlaselo kukweba ulwazi oluninzi ngangokunokwenzeka kunye nokuhlala ungafumaneki ixesha elide kangangoko kunokwenzeka.

Ngokwesiqhelo, amaxhoba kolu hlaselo ngoorhulumente neenkampani ezinkulu.


Iintsholongwane kunye neentshulube

Intsholongwane luhlobo lwesoftware enobungozi eyilelwe ukuziphindaphinda kwezinye iinkqubo kunye namaxwebhu kumatshini osulelekileyo.

Iintsholongwane zisasazeka kwezinye iikhompyuter ngokudluliselwa kweefayile okanye iinkqubo ezosulelekileyo.

I-Worm ikwaluhlobo lwe-malware kwaye, njengentsholongwane, iyaziphindaphinda kwiinkqubo kunye namaxwebhu kumatshini wexhoba.

Umahluko kukuba iimpethu azidingi kuncedo ekusasazeni kwezinye iikhompyuter. Endaweni yoko, iintshulube zenzelwe ukuxhaphaza ukuba sesichengeni koomatshini bexhoba zize zisasazeke kwezinye iikhompyuter njengoko iifayile ezinesifo zigqithiselwa. Basebenzisa uqhagamshelo lwenethiwekhi ukusasaza ngakumbi.

Iintsholongwane kunye neentshulube zinakho ukosulela iinkqubo kunye nothungelwano kwimizuzwana nje.

Intlawulelo

I-Ransomware luhlobo lwe-malware apho abahlaseli bathintela ukufikelela kwiifayile kunye neefolda kwinkqubo ekujolise kuyo de kwenziwe intlawulo.

Amaxhoba ahlala efuneka ukuba ahlawule isixa esithile semali ukuze akwazi ukufikelela kwiifayile zawo.

Izisongelo eziSelfowuni

Olu hlobo lokuhlaselwa luthatha ithuba lokungabikho kolawulo kulawulo kwii-smartphones, ezisetyenziswa ngakumbi kwimicimbi yabucala kunye neyeshishini.

Ngokusebenzisa ii-malware izicelo ezithunyelwe kwiithagethi 'ii-smartphones, abahlaseli banokulandela umkhondo weethagethi zabo kunye nemisebenzi yabo.

Iibhotile

Iibhothi ziinkqubo ezinobungozi ezisetyenziswa ngabagculi ukulawula oomatshini abosulelekileyo.

Abagculi basebenzisa i-bots ukwenza imisebenzi enobungozi evela koomatshini abasebenza kwi-bots.

Nje ukuba umatshini wosulelwe, abahlaseli banokusebenzisa loo bot ukulawula ikhompyuter nokwenza uhlaselo kwezinye iikhompyuter.

Abagculi bahlala basebenzisa i-bots ukosulela oomatshini abaninzi, ukwenza i-botnet abanokuthi bayisebenzise ukusasaza ukwala ukuhlaselwa kwenkonzo.

Uhlaselo lwangaphakathi

Olu hlobo lokuhlaselwa lwenziwa ngumntu osuka kumbutho ogunyazise ukufikelela.

Iwebhsayithi yobuqhetseba

Olu hlobo lokuhlaselwa lubhekisa kubagculi basebenzisa ii-imeyile ezikhohlisayo ukuqokelela ulwazi lomntu okanye lweakhawunti.

Abagculi basebenzisa ii-imeyile ukusasaza amakhonkco amabi kumzamo wokweba ulwazi lomntu.

Izisongelo zeWebhu

Olu hlobo lokuhlaselwa lisebenzisa ikhowudi ebhalwe gwenxa kunye nokusilela kokuqinisekiswa okufanelekileyo kwidatha yokufaka kunye neyokuphuma.

Olunye olu hlaselo lubandakanya inaliti ye-SQL kunye nesikripthi sendawo enqamlezileyo.

Izisongelo ze-IoT

Olu hlobo lokuhlaselwa luthatha ithuba lokunqongophala kweendlela zokhuseleko kwizixhobo ze-IoT ngenxa yezithintelo ezahlukeneyo zekhompyuter.

Kuba ezo zixhobo zidityaniswe kwi-Intanethi kungabikho manyathelo okhuseleko amiselweyo, izixhobo ze-IoT zisengozini kwaye zinokuhlaselwa lula.



Ukuhlelwa kwezoyikiso

Izisongelo zinokuhlelwa ngokweendidi ezintathu:

  • Izisongelo zenethiwekhi
  • Izisongelo zokubamba
  • Izisongelo zesicelo

Izisongelo zenethiwekhi

Inethiwekhi yiseti yeekhompyuter kunye nezixhobo zehardware eziqhagamshelwe ngamajelo onxibelelwano.

Ezi ndlela zonxibelelwano zenza ukuba iikhompyuter kunye nezinye izixhobo zehardware zinxibelelane kwaye zitshintshisane ngolwazi.

Ulwazi luhamba ngejelo lonxibelelwano elidibanisa iinkqubo ezimbini, kwaye ngeli xesha lotshintshiselwano lolwazi umgwebi unokungena kwisitishi kwaye ebe ulwazi olutshintshisanayo.

Izisongelo zenethiwekhi zibandakanya:

  • Ukuphika ukuhlaselwa kweNkonzo
  • Uhlaselo olusekwe kwiphasiwedi
  • Uhlaselo oluphambili lwezitshixo
  • Uhlaselo lomlilo kunye ne-IDS
  • I-DNS kunye ne-ARP yetyhefu
  • Indoda kuhlaselo oluphakathi
  • Ukufafaza
  • Ukuqweqwediswa kweseshoni
  • Ukuqokelelwa kolwazi
  • Ukuphunga

Izisongelo zokubamba

Isongelo sokubamba sibhekisa kuhlaselo lwenkqubo ethile kwilinge lokufumana ukufikelela kulwazi oluhlala kwinkqubo.

Izisongelo zokubamba zibandakanya:

  • Uhlaselo lwegama eligqithisiweyo
  • Ukufikelela okungagunyaziswanga
  • Ukwenza iprofayili
  • Uhlaselo lweMalware
  • Ukuprintwa
  • Ukuphika ukuhlaselwa kweNkonzo
  • Ukuphunyezwa kwekhowudi ngokungafanelekanga
  • Ukunyuka kwelungelo
  • Uhlaselo lwangasemva
  • Ukhuseleko lomzimba

Izisongelo zesicelo

Isongelo sesicelo sibhekisa ekusebenziseni ubungozi obukhoyo kwisicelo ngenxa yokunqongophala kwamanyathelo okhuseleko afanelekileyo kwisicelo.

Izisongelo zesicelo zezi:

  • Inaliti ye-SQL
  • Isikripthi esinqamlezayo
  • Ukuqweqwediswa kweseshoni
  • Ukuchonga ulwazi
  • Ukuqinisekiswa kokufaka okungalunganga
  • Ukulungiswa okungalunganga kokhuseleko
  • Ukuxelwa kolwazi
  • Ukusetyenziswa okufihliweyo kwentsimi
  • Ulawulo lweseshoni eyaphukileyo
  • Ukuhlaselwa kwe-Cryptography
  • Umcimbi wokuphuphuma kwesidambisi
  • Iwebhsayithi yobuqhetseba


Ukwahlulahlula uhlaselo

Abagculi baneendlela ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zokuhlasela inkqubo, kwaye zonke zixhomekeke kwinto enye kwaye oko sesichengeni senkqubo. Ke, ukuze uhlaselo lwenziwe, kufuneka ufumane ukuba semngciphekweni onokuxhatshazwa.

Uhlaselo lungohlulwa ngokwamacandelo amane:

  • Ukuhlaselwa kweNkqubo yokuSebenza
  • Uhlaselo olungalunganga
  • Ukuhlaselwa kwenqanaba lesicelo
  • Shwabanisa iKhowudi yokuhlaselwa

Ukuhlaselwa kweNkqubo yokuSebenza

Iinkqubo zokusebenza bezisoloko zinomdla kubahlaseli abasoloko bezama ukufumana nokuxhaphaza ubungozi be-OS ukuze bakwazi ukufikelela kwinkqubo ekujoliswe kuyo okanye kwinethiwekhi.

Ngenani elikhulayo leempawu kunye nokuntsonkotha kwenkqubo, ukusebenza kweenkqubo kule mihla kuxhomekeke ekubeni sesichengeni kwaye kunomdla kubaphangi.

Ngenxa yokuntsokotha kwenkqubo kunye nothungelwano, ngumceli mngeni ukukhusela iinkqubo kuhlaselo oluzayo. Ukulungiswa okushushu kunye neepatches kunokusetyenziswa, kodwa ngelo xesha lihlala lixesha okanye kube kusonjululwa ingxaki enye.

Ke ngoko, ukukhusela inkqubo kuhlaselo lwe-OS kufuna ukubekwa esweni rhoqo kwenethiwekhi kunye nokwaziswa malunga neendlela zamvanje kule ndawo yolwazi kunye nobungcali.

Ezi zilandelayo zezinye zeenkqubo zokusebenza ezisengozini kunye nohlaselo:

  • Iincukuthu
  • Ukuphuphuma kwebhafa
  • Iinkqubo zokusebenza ezingafakwanga
  • Ukuxhaphaza ukuphunyezwa komgaqo othile wenethiwekhi
  • Ukuhlaselwa kweenkqubo zokungqinisisa
  • Ukuqhekeka amagama okugqitha
  • Ukwaphula ukhuseleko lwenkqubo yeefayile

Uhlaselo olungalunganga

Uhlaselo olungalunganga lwenzeka xa isigebenga sifumana ukufikelela kwinkqubo engakhange iqwalasele ukhuseleko.

Olu hlaselo luvumela abahlaseli ukuba bafikelele kwinkqubo kunye neefayile zayo, kwaye benze iintshukumo ezimbi. Obu buthathaka bunefuthe kwinethiwekhi, koovimba beenkcukacha, kwiiseva zewebhu, njl.

Ukuhlaselwa kwenqanaba lesicelo

Ngenani elihlala lisanda leempawu eziceliweyo kunye nexesha elibekiweyo, izicelo kule mihla zithambekele ekubeni sesichengeni ngenxa yokungakwazi kwabaphuhlisi ukuvavanya ikhowudi ngokufanelekileyo.

Njengoko inani leempawu kunye nokusebenza kukhula, nawo ngokunjalo amathuba okuba semngciphekweni.

Abagculi basebenzisa izixhobo ezahlukeneyo kunye nobuchule ukuze bafumane kwaye baxhaphaze obu buthathaka kwaye ke bafumane ukufikelela kulwazi lwesicelo.

Olunye lolona hlaselo luqhelekileyo lokufaka inqanaba lesicelo lubandakanya:

  • Ukuxelwa kolwazi olubuthathaka
  • Uhlaselo oluphuphumayo lweBuff
  • Inaliti ye-SQL
  • Isikripthi esinqamlezayo
  • Ukuqweqwediswa kweseshoni
  • Ukukhanyelwa kweNkonzo
  • Indoda phakathi
  • Iwebhsayithi yobuqhetseba

Shwabanisa iKhowudi yokuhlaselwa

Ukuchitha ixesha elininzi kunye nemali encinci ekuphuhliseni isoftware entsha, abadwelisi benkqubo basebenzisa iilayibrari zasimahla kunye nekhowudi egunyazisiweyo evela kwimithombo eyahlukeneyo.

Kuba abatshintshi iilayibrari kunye nekhowudi abayisebenzisileyo, isixa esikhulu sekhowudi yenkqubo sihlala sinye.

Ukuba i-hacker iyakwazi ukufumana ubungozi kule khowudi, oko kunokubangela iingxaki ezininzi.

Ke kuyacetyiswa ukuba uhlale ukhangela ikhowudi kwaye ukuba kunokwenzeka uyicofe kancinci.



Imfazwe yolwazi lwale mihla

Imfazwe yolwazi ibandakanya ukusetyenziswa kunye nolawulo lwetekhnoloji yolwazi kunye nonxibelelwano ukuze ufumane inzuzo ngaphezulu kwabakhuphisana nabo.

Izixhobo ezisetyenziswa kwimfazwe yolwazi zibandakanya izixhobo ezahlukeneyo kunye neendlela ezinje ngeentsholongwane, amahashe eTrojan, kunye nokungena ngaphakathi.

Imfazwe yolwazi inokwahlulwa ngokwamacandelo aliqela:

  • Ukulawula nokulawula imfazwe
  • Imfazwe esekwe kubukrelekrele
  • Imfazwe ye-elektroniki
  • Imfazwe yezengqondo
  • Imfazwe eHacker
  • Imfazwe yezoqoqosho
  • Imfazwe ye-cyber

Elinye lala macandelo linamaqhinga okhuselayo kunye nokuzikhusela:

  • Iindlela ezichasayo zibhekisa kuhlaselo lomchasi
  • Iindlela zokuzikhusela zibhekisa kumanyathelo athathiweyo ngokuchasene nohlaselo