Iindlela zokuPhucula iSoftware

Kule posi siza kuhamba ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zophuhliso lwesoftware kunye neenzuzo kunye nezinto ezingalunganga kunye nexesha lokusebenzisa imodeli nganye.



Uhlobo lokumisela

Imodeli yokujikeleza yobomi ayizami ukuqala ngokuchazwa ngokupheleleyo kweemfuno. Endaweni yokuba uphuhliso luqale ngokuchaza kunye nokumilisela nje inxenye yesoftware, enokuthi iphinde ihlaziywe ukuze kuchongwe ezinye iimfuno. Le nkqubo iphindaphindwe, ivelise inguqulelo entsha yesoftware kumjikelo ngamnye wemodeli.

Cinga ngemodeli yokujikeleza yobomi ebandakanya ukuphinda la manqanaba mane ngokulandelelana:


Isigaba seemfuno, apho iimfuno zesoftware ziqokelelwa zize zihlalutywe. Ukulungiswa kufuneka ekugqibeleni kukhokelele kwinqanaba lesidingo elivelisa inkcazo egqibeleleyo kunye neyokugqibela yeemfuno.

Inqanaba loyilo, apho isisombululo sesoftware sokuhlangabezana neemfuno siyilelwe. Olu inokuba luyilo olutsha, okanye ulwandiso loyilo lwangaphambili.


Ukuphunyezwa kunye novavanyo, xa isoftware ikhowudiwe, idityanisiwe kwaye yavavanywa.



Isigaba sokuHlola, apho kuvavanywa isoftware, iimfuno zangoku ziyaqwalaselwa, kunye notshintsho kunye nokongezwa kwiimfuno ezicetywayo.

Kumjikelo ngamnye wemodeli, kufuneka kuthathwe isigqibo malunga nokuba ngaba isoftware eveliswe ngumjikelo iya kulahlwa, okanye igcinwe njengendawo yokuqala kumjikelo olandelayo (ngamanye amaxesha kubhekiswa kuyo njengeprototyping eyandayo.

Ekugqibeleni inqaku liya kufikelelwa apho iimfuno zigqityiwe kwaye isoftware ingahanjiswa, okanye kuya kuba nzima ukuphucula isoftware njengoko kufuneka, kwaye kufuneka kwenziwe isiqalo esitsha.


Imodeli yokujikeleza yobomi inokufaniswa nokuvelisa isoftware ngokulandelelana ngokulandelelana. Ukuzoba ukuthelekiswa kweendlela zezibalo ezisebenzisa uqikelelo ngokulandelelana ukufikelela kwisisombululo sokugqibela, isibonelelo seendlela ezinjalo sixhomekeke ekukhawulezaneni kwabo kwisisombululo.

Isitshixo ekusebenziseni ngempumelelo umjikelo wobomi bokukhula kwesoftware kukuqinisekiswa ngokungqongqo kweemfuno, kunye nokuqinisekiswa (kubandakanya uvavanyo) lwenguqulo nganye yesoftware ngokuchasene neemfuno kumjikelo ngamnye wemodeli.

Izinto eziluncedo ze-Iterative Model

  • Yenza isoftware esebenzayo ngokukhawuleza nangokukhawuleza ngexesha lomjikelo wobomi besoftware.
  • Unobhetyebhetye-ngexabiso eliphantsi ukutshintsha ubungakanani kunye neemfuno.
  • Kulula ukuvavanya kunye nokulungisa ingxaki ngexesha lokuncitshiswa okuncinci.
  • Kulula ukulawula umngcipheko ngenxa yokuba iziqwenga ezinobungozi zichongiwe zaze zaphathwa ngexesha lokulungiswa kwayo.
  • Iteration nganye luphawu olulawulwa ngokulula.

Ukungancedi kweModeli yokuphindezela

  • Isigaba ngasinye sokuphinda-phinda siqinile kwaye asihlali sodwa.
  • Iingxaki zinokuvela ngokunxulumene nenkqubo yoyilo kuba ayizizo zonke iimfuno eziqokelelweyo ngaphambili kumjikelo wonke wobomi besoftware.


Imodeli eyandayo

Imodeli yokwakha eyandayo yindlela yophuhliso lwesoftware apho imodeli yenzelwe, yaphunyezwa kwaye yavavanywa ngokunyuka (kancinci kongezwa ngalo lonke ixesha) de kugqitywe imveliso. Kubandakanya zombini ukukhula kunye nokugcinwa. Imveliso ichazwa njengegqityiweyo xa yanelisa zonke iimfuno zayo. Le modeli idibanisa izinto zemodeli yempophoma kunye nefilosofi yokuphindaphindeka.

Imveliso ibolile ibe linani lezinto, nganye kuzo iyilelwe kwaye yakhiwe yodwa (ibizwa ngokuba yeyokwakha). Icandelo ngalinye linikezelwa kumxhasi xa lugqityiwe. Oku kuvumela ukusetyenziswa ngokuyinxalenye kwemveliso kwaye kuthintela ixesha elide lophuhliso. Ikwakudala ukuphuma kwemali enkulu yokuqala kunye nokulinda okude okulandelayo kuthintelwe. Le modeli yophuhliso ikwanceda ukunciphisa isiphumo esibuhlungu sokungenisa inkqubo entsha ngokupheleleyo ngaxeshanye.


Kukho iingxaki ngale modeli. Inye kukuba ulwakhiwo ngalunye kufuneka luhlanganiswe nolwakhiwo lwangaphambili kunye nazo naziphi na iinkqubo ezikhoyo. Umsebenzi wokubola kwemveliso uyakhe ayisiyonto ilula nayo. Ukuba bambalwa kakhulu abakhi kwaye ukwakha nganye kuyekisa oku kujika kube yimodeli yokwakha kunye nokulungisa. Nangona kunjalo ukuba kuninzi kakhulu okwakhayo emva koko akukho nto incinci yongezwa kulwakhiwo ngalunye.

Izibonelelo zoMzekelo oNgezelelweyo

  • Yenza isoftware esebenzayo ngokukhawuleza nangokukhawuleza ngexesha lomjikelo wobomi besoftware.
  • Unobhetyebhetye-ngexabiso eliphantsi ukutshintsha ubungakanani kunye neemfuno.
  • Kulula ukuvavanya kunye nokulungisa ingxaki ngexesha lokuncitshiswa okuncinci.
  • Kulula ukulawula umngcipheko ngenxa yokuba iziqwenga ezinobungozi zichongiwe zaze zaphathwa ngexesha lokulungiswa kwayo.
  • Iteration nganye luphawu olulawulwa ngokulula.

Izinto ezingalunganga zoLwandiso lweModeli

  • Isigaba ngasinye sokuphinda-phinda siqinile kwaye asihlali sodwa.
  • Iingxaki zinokuvela ngokunxulumene nenkqubo yoyilo kuba ayizizo zonke iimfuno eziqokelelweyo ngaphambili kumjikelo wonke wobomi besoftware.

Uwusebenzisa nini uMzekelo woNyuso

  • Iimodeli ezinjalo zisetyenziswa apho iimfuno zicacile kwaye zinokuphunyezwa ngokobulumko besigaba. Ukusuka kulo mzobo kucacile ukuba iimfuno ® zahlulwe zayi-R1, R2 ……… .I-Rn yaziswa ngokufanelekileyo.
  • Ubukhulu becala imodeli enjalo isetyenziswa kwizicelo zewebhu kunye neenkampani ezisekwe kwimveliso.


Umzekelo we-Agile

Imodeli ye-agile yindibaniselwano yazo zombini imodeli yokuphindaphinda kunye nokunyuka ngokwaphula imveliso ibe ngamacandelo apho kumjikelo ngamnye okanye kulungiso, imodeli yokusebenza yecandelo ihanjiswa.

Imodeli ivelisa ukukhutshwa okuqhubekayo (ukuphindaphinda), ngalo lonke ixesha kongeza utshintsho oluncinci kukhululo lwangaphambili (iterative). Ngexesha lokulwelwa ngakunye, njengoko imveliso isakhiwa, ikwavavanywa ukuqinisekisa ukuba ekupheleni kokulungiswa kwemveliso iyathunyelwa.

Imodeli ye-Agile igxininisa intsebenziswano, njengoko abathengi, abaphuhlisi kunye nabavavanyi besebenza kunye kuyo yonke iprojekthi.


Uncedo lwemodeli ye-Agile kukuba ikhawuleza ihambise imveliso esebenzayo kwaye ithathwa njengeyona ndlela inyaniweyo yophuhliso.

Enye into engalunganga kule modeli kukuba kuba ixhomekeke kakhulu kunxibelelwano lwabathengi, iprojekthi inokuhamba ngendlela engalunganga ukuba umthengi akacacanga malunga neemfuno okanye ulwalathiso afuna ukuya kulo.



V Umzekelo

Imodeli ye-V yinguqulelo ephuculweyo yemodeli yempophoma yeklasikhi apho inqanaba ngalinye lomjikelo wobomi wophuhliso liqinisekiswa khona ngaphambi kokudlulela kwinqanaba elilandelayo. Ngale modeli, ukuvavanywa kwesoftware ngokucacileyo kuqala, okt nje ukuba kubhalwe iimfuno.

Apha, ngokuvavanya sithetha ukuqinisekiswa kusetyenziswa uphononongo kunye nohlolo, okt uvavanyo lwe-tuli. Oku kunceda ekuchongeni iimpazamo kwangoko kumjikelo wobomi kwaye kunciphise iziphene ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo ezivela kwikhowudi kamva kumjikelo wobomi.


Inqanaba ngalinye lomjikelo wobomi wophuhliso linesicwangciso sovavanyo esifanayo. okt njengoko isigaba ngasinye sisebenza kuso, kuyenziwa isicwangciso sovavanyo ukulungiselela ukuvavanywa kweemveliso zeso sigaba. Ngokuphuhlisa izicwangciso zovavanyo, sinokuchaza iziphumo ezilindelekileyo zokuvavanywa kweemveliso zelo nqanaba kunye nokuchaza indlela yokungena kunye nokuphuma kwinqanaba ngalinye.

Njengengxangxasi, inqanaba ngalinye liqala kuphela emva kokuba elidlulileyo liphelile. Le modeli iluncedo xa kungekho mfuno zingaziwayo, kuba kusenzima ukubuyela umva wenze utshintsho.

V Model-Izibonelelo

  • Isigaba ngasinye sinezinto ekufuneka zenziwe.
  • Ithuba eliphezulu lokuphumelela kwimodeli yempophoma ngenxa yokuphuhliswa kwezicwangciso zovavanyo kwangoko ngexesha lomjikelo wobomi.
  • Ukuxhalaba kwexesha xa kuthelekiswa nemodeli yempophoma iphantsi okanye sinokuthi ngama-50% ngaphantsi.
  • Isebenza kakuhle kwiiprojekthi ezincinci apho iimfuno ziqondwa ngokulula.
  • Ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo kuphezulu.

V Model-Ukungancedi

  • Qina ngokungqongqo, njengemodeli yempophoma.
  • Ukuguquguquka okuncinci kunye nokulungelelanisa indawo kunzima kwaye kuyabiza.
  • Isoftware iphuhliswa ngexesha lesigaba sokumiliselwa, kungoko kungekho prototypes zakuqala zesoftware ziveliswayo.
  • Imodeli ye-V ayinikezeli ngendlela ecacileyo yeengxaki ezifunyenwe ngexesha lezigaba zokuvavanya.

Uyisebenzisa nini imodeli V

  • Ngokwazi kwam ndicinga / ndiziva apho ixesha kunye neendleko zizithintelo zeprojekthi emva koko singasebenzisa iimodeli ezinjalo ukuhambisa ngokukhawuleza nangeendleko ezifanelekileyo.
  • Xa kuthelekiswa nemodeli yempophoma, uV Model ungaphezulu okanye ungaphantsi ngokufanayo kodwa umsebenzi wovavanyo uqala kwangoko, okhokelela kwixesha elincinci, kunye neendleko zeprojekthi.


Ingxangxasi Model

Imodeli yempophoma yeyona indala kunye neyona ichanekileyo kwiindlela ze-SDLC ezilungelelanisiweyo. Kukho izigaba ezingqongqo kwaye isigaba ngasinye kufuneka sigqitywe kuqala ngaphambi kokuya kwisigaba esilandelayo. Akukho kubuya mva.

Isigaba ngasinye sixhomekeke kulwazi olusuka kwinqanaba elidlulileyo kwaye sinecebo lalo leprojekthi.

Ingxangxasi kulula ukuyiqonda kwaye kulula ukuyilawula. Nangona kunjalo, ihlala iqhelekile kulibaziseko njengoko isigaba ngasinye sifuna ukujongwa kwaye sisayinwe ngokupheleleyo phambi kokuba isigaba esilandelayo siqale.

Kwakhona, ekubeni kukho indawo encinci yokuhlaziya xa nje isigaba sigqityiwe, iingxaki azinakulungiswa de ufike kwinqanaba lokugcina.

Le modeli isebenza kakuhle xa zonke iimfuno zaziwa kwaye ukuguquguquka kungafuneki kwaye iprojekthi inexesha elimiselweyo.

Izinto eziluncedo kwimodeli yempophoma

  • Isigaba ngasinye sinokuhanjiswa okuthile kunye nenkqubo yokujonga kwakhona.
  • Izigaba ziyacutshungulwa zigqitywe nganye nganye.
  • Isebenza kakuhle kwiiprojekthi ezincinci apho iimfuno ziqondwa kakuhle.
  • Yomeleza umbono wokuba 'chaza ngaphambi koyilo' kunye 'noyilo ngaphambi kwekhowudi'.

Ukungancedi kwimodeli yempophoma

  • Ukulungelelanisa ubungakanani ngexesha lomjikelo wobomi kunokubulala iprojekthi
  • Akukho software isebenza iveliswa kude kube sebusuku ngexesha lomjikelo wobomi.
  • Ixabiso eliphezulu lomngcipheko kunye nokungaqiniseki.
  • Imodeli engalunganga yeeprojekthi ezintsonkothileyo nezijolise kwinto.
  • Imodeli engalunganga yeeprojekthi ezinde neziqhubekayo.
  • Imodeli engalunganga apho iimfuno zikwimodareyitha ukuya kumngcipheko omkhulu wokutshintsha.

Uyisebenzisa nini imodeli yempophoma

  • Imodeli enjalo isetyenziswa kakhulu apho iimfuno zicacile kwaye akukho lutshintsho kwixesha lophuhliso. Singazifumana iimeko ezinjalo kwiiprojekthi zokhuselo, apho iimfuno ziya kucaca kuba ngaphambi kokuba babhale iimfuno baya kuhlalutya kakuhle.
  • Singalubiza olu hlobo lwemodeli yomjikelo wobomi kwiiprojekthi zokufuduka, apho iimfuno ziya kufana kuphela neqonga okanye iilwimi zinokwahluka / zitshintshe.
  • Kananjalo banokusebenzisa iiprojekthi apho abaxhasi ngokwabo baya kwenza imisebenzi yovavanyo, kuba kude kube kugqityiwe ukwenza iikhowudi asizukuyihambisa iprojekthi.