Iingcebiso zokuvavanywa kwesicelo sewebhu

Ukuvavanywa kweWebhu kwahlukile kuvavanyo lwesicelo sedesktop. Kuvavanyo lweSicelo seWebhu, sihlala sisebenzisa isikhangeli (umxhasi) ukucela iwebhusayithi kwiserver yewebhu ngokunxibelelana neseva ngaphezulu kwe-HTTP okanye i-HTTPS.

Kubalulekile ukuba, njengabavavanyi, xa sibandakanyeka kuvavanyo lweWebhu, kufuneka siqhelene neziseko ze-HTTP ukufumana ukuqonda kakuhle ukuba zisebenza njani izicelo zewebhu.

Kuvavanyo lweWebhu, ngaphandle kovavanyo olusebenzayo lomntu ngamnye kunye nezinto ezihlanganisiweyo, ezinye zeentlobo zovavanyo ezinje ngokuSebenza, uKhuseleko, Isikhangeli esinqamlezileyo kunye nokuphendula ezingafunekiyo kuvavanyo lwesicelo sedesktop, zibaluleke kakhulu kuvavanyo lweSicelo seWebhu. Kungenxa yokuba iZicelo zeWebhu zivulelekile kubaphulaphuli abaninzi ukuze intsebenzo kufuneka ibalwe.


Ukongeza iZicelo zeWebhu zichaphazeleka kuhlaselo lokhuseleko olufana ne-DDos kunye ne-SQL Injection, kwaye ukuba iwebhusayithi ijolise kuyo, ixesha lokuphumla linokubiza kakhulu, ke ugxininiso olukhulu kufuneka lubekwe kuvavanyo lokhuseleko.



Uvavanyo lweeNkonzo zeWebhu

Iiwebhusayithi ezininzi zakhiwa kusetyenziswa iinkonzo zewebhu. Oku kunika ithuba lokuba abavavanyi bavavanye usetyenziso lwewebhu kwizinto ezizodwa endaweni yesicelo sewebhu esidityanisiweyo.


Izibonelelo zokuvavanya iinkonzo zewebhu zodwa zezi:


  • Akukho sikhangeli sichaphazelekayo -Sinokunxibelelana ngokuthe ngqo nenkonzo yewebhu okoko sisazi isiphelo sayo kunye nokuba zeziphi iiparameter ekufuneka sizithumele.


  • Ngokukhawuleza kakhulu -Njengoko sijolise kwinkonzo yewebhu eyahlukileyo, akukho mifanekiso, ijavascript okanye i-css yokulayisha, ke impendulo iyakhawuleza.


  • Ukulungisa ingxaki ngokulula -Ukuvavanywa kwenkonzo yewebhu, ukuba sihlangabezana nomcimbi, kulula kakhulu ukufumana unobangela womcimbi kwaye ke ukulungisa ingxaki kuba kuncinci kwintlungu.



  • Ulawulo olungakumbi -Sinolawulo oluthe ngqo malunga neso sicelo esisingenisayo kwinkonzo yewebhu, ukuze sikwazi ukusebenzisa zonke iintlobo zedatha kwimeko yeempazamo zeenkonzo zewebhu.

Singasebenzisa Isixhobo seSopaUI ukuvavanya inkonzo yewebhu.



Uvavanyo lomsebenzi

Ukuvavanywa kokuSebenza kubaluleke ngakumbi kuvavanyo lweWebhu njengoko usetyenziso lwewebhu lubonakalisiwe kwinani labaphulaphuli elinokubakho.

Xa kuvavanywa usetyenziso lwewebhu, hayi kuphela ekufuneka siqinisekise ukuba ukusebenza kwewebhusayithi kuzinzile, kufuneka siqiniseke ukuba isicelo asiphambuki xa sithotyelwa umthwalo omkhulu kwiseva.


Ngelishwa, uninzi lwabantu luyalibala malunga nokuvavanywa kokusebenza kwesicelo sewebhu, okanye ukuhlehlisa ukuvavanywa ngaphambi nje kokuba kukhululwe kade. Ukuba kukho into engalunganga ngokusisiseko kuyilo okanye ikhowudi enokuthi ichaphazele ukusebenza, ngekhe sazi ngayo kude kube lixesha.

Eyona ndlela isebenzayo kukuqhuba umsebenzi wokujonga rhoqo njengoko kuvavanyo olusebenzayo ukuze siqiniseke ukuba intsebenzo ayibuyanga njengenxalenye yotshintsho kwisiseko sekhowudi.

Jmeter sisixhobo esidumileyo sokuvavanywa komthwalo ovulekileyo esinokusetyenziselwa ukukhangela ukusebenza kwendawo. Inokudityaniswa kwakhona kwiserver ye-CI.



Uvavanyo lweWebhu olunqamlezileyo

Njengoko kukho inani elahlukileyo labakhangeli, kufuneka siqinisekise ukuba isicelo sethu sewebhu sisebenza njengoko kulindelwe kuzo zonke (ubuncinci ezona zikhulu, okt Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox kunye neMicrosoft Internet Explorer), ungalibali iOpera neSafari.


Njengalo lonke uvavanyo, kufuneka sazi ukuba zeziphi iibrawuza kunye neenguqulelo zazo ezixhaswayo sisicelo kwaye emva koko sicwangcise uvavanyo ngokufanelekileyo.

Ukuvavanya yonke into kwisikhangeli ngasinye kunokuthatha ixesha elininzi, kungoko sinokusebenzisa izixhobo ezizenzekelayo ukuqinisekisa ukusebenza kwizikhangeli ezahlukeneyo.

Ngaphaya koko, kukho izixhobo zokuvavanywa kwe-intanethi ezenza kube lula kubavavanyi ukwenza uvavanyo lwabo kwizikhangeli ezahlukeneyo.

Ukuthetha ngokusuka kumava obuqu, inani lemiba enxulumene nesikhangeli limbalwa kakhulu kwaye ikakhulu linxulumene neenguqulelo ezindala kakhulu zesikhangeli okanye i-CSS ayinikezeli ngokufanelekileyo ngokunika imiba yoyilo.


Kungoko kungangabikho mfuneko yokuqhuba onke amatyala ovavanyo kuzo zonke izikhangeli njengoko kunokuba kukuchitha ixesha elininzi (nokuba kuzenzekelayo) ngenzuzo encinci, kunye nethuba lento engasebenziyo esezantsi kakhulu.

Eyona ndlela ilungileyo kukuqhuba onke amatyala ovavanyo kwisikhangeli esinye esikhulu, emva koko ukhethe uninzi lweemeko ezibaluleke kakhulu kwaye uziqhube kwezinye izikhangeli.



Uvavanyo oluzenzekelayo

Uninzi lweenkampani eziphuhlisa iiNkqubo zeWebhu zisebenza kwimodeli yophuhliso lwe-agile kunye nokukhutshwa rhoqo, kungoko kukho imfuneko yokuvavanywa rhoqo. Kuvavanyo lweWebhu, ukuZenzekelayo koVavanyo kunokuba luncedo olukhulu kuba kususa umthwalo wokuphindaphinda umsebenzi.

Kanye nokuqinisekisa ukusebenza, sinokusebenzisa izikripthi ezizenzekelayo ukuvelisa idatha yovavanyo esiyifunayo ngexesha lovavanyo lweWebhu.

Enye indlela yokuzenzekelayo enokunceda kuvavanyo olwenziweyo zixhobo ezinje nge Selenium WebDriver ingathatha iifoto-skrini zephepha lesikhangeli. Ukuba sifuna ukukhangela ngokubonakalayo inani elikhulu lamaphepha, o.k.t. Sifuna ukwazi ukuba isicatshulwa sendawo sinikezela njani kwiiphepha ezahlukeneyo zewebhu, singasisebenzisa isixhobo ukuya emaphepheni kwaye sithathe izikrini kwaye siqinisekise ngokukhawuleza ngokubonakalayo.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya, nceda ujonge ku Iingcebiso zokuZenzekelayo zovavanyo kunye neZenzo eziBalaseleyo



Ukuhlalutya ukugcwala kweHTTP

Rhoqo kukho isidingo sokuhlalutya ukugcwala kwe-HTTP ukusuka kwisikhangeli ukuya kwiiseva ezisezantsi. Ngokuhlalutya ukugcwala kwewebhu sinokumba kwiinkcukacha zesicelo ngasinye kunye nempendulo.

Kuvavanyo lweWebhu, ukuhlalutya itrafikhi ye-HTTP kuluncedo ngakumbi xa kuvavanywa iithegi zomntu wesithathu, ezinje ngeeGoogle Analytics tag okanye i-omniture tag kwiwebhu.

Ayisiyiyo kuphela ukuqinisekisa ukuba iithegi zibambe amaxabiso achanekileyo, sinokuvavanya ukuba izicelo zigxothiwe kwiinkqubo zomntu wesithathu ezifanelekileyo kwaye sifumana impendulo eyiyo, ihlala ikhowudi yokuphendula eyi-200.

Ukuze sikwazi ukubona ngamehlo nokurekhoda ukugcwala kwe-HTTP kufuneka sisebenzise isixhobo esisebenza njengommeli kwaye sinokumamela izicelo kunye neempendulo phakathi komthengi, ngesiqhelo isikhangeli, kunye neeseva.

Nazi ezinye izixhobo ezaziwayo esinokuzisebenzisa ukuhlalutya ukugcwala kweHTTP:

Wireshark ukuba ufuna ukubona yonke into iqhubeka kwinethiwekhi.

Fiddler ukuba ufuna ukubeka esweni ukugcwala kweHTTP / s.

Iintloko zeHTTP eziPhila ukuba ukwiFirefox kwaye ufuna iplagi ekhawulezileyo ukubona izihloko.

UmliloBug unokulufumanela olo lwazi kwaye ubonelele ngesixhobo esibonakalayo esihle xa usebenza kwiphepha elinye ngexesha lophuhliso. Ndiyisebenzisile ukubeka esweni intengiselwano yeAJAX.



IiWebhusayithi eziPhendulayo kunye noVavanyo oluShukumayo

Abantu abaninzi bafikelela kwiiwebhusayithi kwiifowuni eziphathwayo. Oku kuthetha ukuba uVavanyo lweWebhu alusenamda kwizikhangeli kwiidesktops. Ngoku kufuneka sivavanye usetyenziso lwewebhu kumaqonga eselfowuni kunye neidesktops.

Zimbini iindidi zezicelo zewebhu zezixhobo eziphathwayo, ezenzelwe ngenjongo zokusebenzisa amaqonga ahambayo, kwaye ezo 'ziphendulayo', oko kukuthi, inye kuphela inguqulelo yesicelo sewebhu esakhelweyo kwidesktop kunye nakwizixhobo zefowuni kodwa isicelo siyasebenza kwaye iboniswe ngokwahlukileyo ngokuxhomekeke kubukhulu besixhobo.

Zombini ezi ntlobo zifuna ukuvavanywa kwizixhobo eziselfowuni kunye / okanye kwiimodeli.

Ezinye izinto ezibalulekileyo zoVavanyo lweWebhu

Ngexesha lokuvavanywa kweWebhu, kunye nokuvavanywa kokusebenza, kufuneka kwakhona sijonge kwaye singaphelelanga:

  • IJavascript
  • I-CSS
  • Iicookies
  • Ukufikeleleka
  • Amakhonkco afileyo
  • UX kunye nobeko
  • Ukuqinisekiswa kwe-HTML
  • Ukhuseleko
  • Ukuhlaziya isiKhangeli
  • Ubungakanani bewindows